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Innovative technology for functional fiber development

Time : 2019-11-04 Hits : 26

Functional fiber is to point to besides the physical and mechanical properties that general fiber place has, still have the chemical fiber of one kind or a few kinds of special functions, wait for the performance such as hygroscopic, heat preservation, antibacterial, antistatic. Functional fibers can not only passively respond and function to meet a particular requirement and purpose, but also actively respond and remember, so called smart fibers.

Functional fibers can generally be divided into two types. One is functional modified fibers targeted at conventional fibers, that is, conventional fibers are endowed with new special functions in general morphology and function through physical and chemical modification technology, such as conduction, electricity storage, heat storage, transmission, separation, photoelectric, biocompatibility, etc. Another kind is of high performance fiber with special functions, generally refers to the characteristics of high tenacity, high modulus, high temperature resistance, chemical corrosion resistance and other properties of the fiber, its for external physical effects such as stress, heat, light, electricity or chemical resistance is of conventional fibers, such as carbon fiber, glass fiber, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber, aramid fiber, polyimide fiber, PPS fiber, basalt fiber, etc. Functional fiber is not only used in clothing and home textile, but also has a broad application prospect in the fields of transportation, construction, medical care, aviation and aerospace.


1. Special-shaped fiber processing technology

Most of the preparation methods of functional modified fibers are physical or chemical modification of common fiber materials. The commonly used methods include changing the shape of spinneret hole, adding functional powder into spinning solution, two-component composite spinning, graft copolymerization, etc. Among them, changing the shape of spinneret hole to shape the fiber section is the most commonly used method.

Structure diagram of profiled fiber

In terms of production practice, COOLMAX® polyester fiber of INVISTA (INVISTA) is divided into the "ten" shape and the new "c-o" shape developed in the early stage. Aerocool fiber developed by South Korea's HYOSUNG is shaped like the four-leaf of "alfalfa", with excellent moisture absorption and sweats. The hollow micro-porous fiber introduced by TEIJIN is made of hollow fiber and connected with hollow part on the side of the fiber. It has the function of absorbing sweat into the hollow part for storage or releasing stored sweat into the body. Inweida THERMOLITE® polyester hollow fiber, imitation of polar bear wool production, excellent insulation performance, suitable for making ski shirts, mountaineering clothing and so on. Domestic development is relatively successful and industrialization of profiled-section fiber is also a lot of, including quanzhou Haitian launched Cooldry® moisture absorption and sweat drainage fiber, yizheng chemical fiber development of Coolbst moisture guide fast dry differential fiber, Taiwan zhongxing developed Coolplus moisture absorption and sweat drainage fiber, Taiwan haojie launched Technofine moisture absorption and sweat drainage polyester fiber.

2. Blending silk technology

By adding functional masterbatch, powder and reagents into spinning solution, new fiber materials with permanent functions can also be prepared by blending. Taking functional masterbatch as an example, it has been widely used in improving flame retardant, antibacterial, chemical resistance and uv resistance of polyester fiber, polyamide fiber and regenerating cellulose fiber.


Common chemical fiber masterbatch products

In terms of the application of blended silk technology, when antibacterial and deodorization processing of various fibers, antibacterial agents such as zinc oxide, silver chloride, silver nitrate, copper oxide, cuprous chloride, copper sulfate and other particles can be added to the spinning liquid by using nano technology to produce antibacterial fibers. Uv shielding agent was added into the spinning solution, such as nanoscale titanium dioxide, lead monoxide, zinc oxide, silicon dioxide, alumina, iron oxide, manganese borate, aluminum silicate, etc., and the prepared uv-proof fiber had the characteristics of absorbing ultraviolet ray with the wavelength of 200-400nm. The halogen-free flame retardants such as poly (p-phenylsulfone) phenylphosphonate ester, cyclic phosphate ester and organosilicone were added into the spinning melt or solution to modify flame retardancy of polypropylene fiber, polyacrylonitrile fiber and polyester fiber. By introducing graphene nanoparticles into polymer fiber matrix such as viscose, polyamide, polyacrylonitrile and polyvinyl alcohol, graphene/polymer composite fiber can be developed to improve the strength, heat resistance, anti-ultraviolet, anti-bacterial and anti-static properties of the polymer fiber. The main products are mica fiber, jade fiber, rice and wheat fiber, ceramic fiber, taiji stone fiber and so on. In addition, through the microcapsule addition technology, the microcapsule containing functional particles is added into the spinning liquid during the spinning process of chemical fiber, which can prepare aromatic fiber, environment-friendly flame-retardant fiber, phase-change temperature-regulating fiber, color-changing fiber and so on.

3. Composite spinning technology

Composite spinning, in which two or more polymers or the same polymer with different properties are spun into a single fiber through the same spinneret, requires more processing equipment. Composite fibers, such as parallel type, core-type and sea-island type, can be obtained on the same cross section. The composite fiber can not only solve the permanent crimp and elasticity of the fiber, but also provide the characteristics of easy dyeing, flame retardant, antistatic and high moisture absorption through the continuous coverage of multiple components. Such as shell bicomponent PTT and T400 invista company elastic fiber all by PET and PTT compound spinning and, two kinds of yarn has natural three-dimensional crimp and good resilience, and solved the difficulty of conventional elastic fiber Spandex dyeing, elastic excess, the instability of complicated weaving, the fabric size and spandex aging in the process of use, and many other issues; The flame retardant composite fiber made by composite spinning with blend or copolymer flame retardant high polymer as core and common high polymer as skin can avoid the discoloration and poor light resistance of flame retardant fiber and improve the stability of flame retardant performance and dyeing performance. With low melting point metal or alloy as the core layer and PET as the cortex, a new type of composite fiber against electromagnetic radiation is developed, which solves the problems of existing electromagnetic shielding fiber coating being easy to oxidization, not easy to dye and poor hand feeling.


4. Graft copolymerization modification technology

The method belongs to the chemical modification of fiber, and its production process is long and the production cost is high. Copolymerization is the polymerization of two or more monomers under certain conditions. Grafting is the chemical process by which the large molecule chain of the fiber can be attached to the required group. If radiation grafting or chemical grafting method is adopted, reactive compounds containing phosphorus and halogen are used for flame retardant modification of polyester, polyvinyl alcohol and other fibers, which have good durability. By grafting copolymerization, hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl group, carboxyl group, amide group and amino group were introduced into the macromolecular structure of the fiber, which could improve the hygroscopic, sweats and antistatic properties of the fiber. It is a typical clean processing method that the fiber is modified by surface activation and grafting with high-energy ray, strong ultraviolet ray or laser radiation or low-temperature plasma.

For more information, please pay attention to the report of China's textile product development in 2019.

(source: textile guide official micro)

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