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Textile Basic Knowledge (1)

Time : 2019-05-22 Hits : 10

20190525131210_873

Textile Basic Knowledge

1. The commonly used calculation formulas for textiles can be divided into two types: fixed length calculation formula and fixed weight calculation formula.

1. Calculating formula of fixed length system:

(1) Daniel (D): D = g/L*9000 where G is the weight of the silk thread (g), L is the length of the silk thread (m)

(2) Tex (H)]: tex = g/L*1000 where G is the weight (g) of yarn (or silk) and L is the length (m) of yarn (or silk).

(3) dtex: dtex = g/L*9000 where G is the weight of the silk thread (g), L is the length of the silk thread (m)

2. Calculating formulas of fixed-weight system:

(1) Metric count (N): N = L/G where G is the weight (g) of yarn (or silk) and L is the length (m) of yarn (or silk).

(2) Number of British Branches (S): S = L/(G*840), where G is the weight of the silk thread (pound), L is the length of the silk thread (code)

2. Conversion formula for textile unit selection:

(1) Conversion formula of metric expenditure (N) and Daniel (D): D = 9000/N

(2) Conversion formulas of British Branches (S) and Daniel (D): D = 5315/S

(3) Conversion formula of dtex and tex: 1tex = 10dtex

(4) Conversion formula of Tex and Daniel (D): Tex=D/9

(5) Conversion formula between Tex and British count (S): tex = K/S K value: pure cotton yarn K = 583.1 purified fiber K = 590.5 polyester cotton yarn K = 587.6 cotton viscose yarn (75:25) K = 584.8 dimensional cotton yarn (50:50) K = 587.0

(6), Tex and metric number (N) conversion formula: tex = 1000/N

(7) Conversion formula of dtex and Daniel (D): dtex = 10D/9

(8) Conversion formula between dtex and British count (S): dtex = 10K/S K value: pure cotton yarn K = 583.1 purified fiber K = 590.5 polyester cotton yarn K = 587.6 cotton viscose yarn (75:25) K = 584.8 dimensional cotton yarn (50:50) K = 587.0

(9) Conversion formulas of dtex and metric expenditure (N): dtex = 10000/N

Conversion formulas of (10), metric centimeter (cm) and inch: 1 inch = 2.54 cm

Conversion formulas of metric meter (M) and British code (yd): 1 code = 0.9144 meters

(12) Conversion formula of g/m2 and m/m for silk and satin: 1m/m=4.3056g/m2

(13) Conversion formula of actual weight and weight of silk and satin: LB = weight of silk per meter (g/m)*0.9144 (m/yd)*50 (yd)/453.6 (g/yd)

3. Detection methods:

1. Hand-feeling visual measurement: This method is suitable for textile raw materials in bulk state.

(1) Cotton fibers are shorter and finer than ramie fibers and other technological fibers and wool fibers, often with various impurities and defects.

(2) The hemp fiber feels rough and hard.

(3) Wool fibers are curly and elastic.

(4) Silk is filament, long and slender, with special luster.

(5) In chemical fibers, only viscose fibers differ greatly in dry and wet strength.

(6) Polyurethane filament has great elasticity, and its length can be stretched to more than five times at room temperature.

2. Microscopic observation method: It is based on the longitudinal and cross-sectional morphological characteristics of the fibers to identify the fibers.

(1) Cotton fibers: cross-sectional shape: round waist, with middle waist; vertical shape: flat ribbon, with natural bending.

(2) Hemp (ramie, flax, jute) fibers: cross-sectional form: waist round or polygonal, with a cavity; longitudinal form: with cross-section, vertical lines.

(3) Wool fiber: cross-sectional form: round or nearly round, some with wool pith; longitudinal form: surface with scales.

(4) Rabbit hair fibers: cross-sectional morphology: dumbbell type, with hairy pith; longitudinal morphology: with scales on the surface.

(5) Mulberry silk fiber: cross-sectional shape: irregular triangle; longitudinal shape: smooth and straight, longitudinal striped.

(6) Ordinary viscose fibers: cross-sectional form: serrated, skin-core structure; longitudinal form: longitudinal groove.

(7) Strength-rich fibers: cross-sectional form: less teeth, or circular, elliptical; longitudinal form: smooth surface.

(8) Acetate fibers: cross-sectional form: trilobal or irregular serrated; longitudinal form: surface with longitudinal stripes.

(9) Acrylic fiber: cross-sectional shape: round, dumbbell or leaf; longitudinal shape: smooth surface or striped.

(10) Polyvinyl chloride fibers: cross-sectional shape: close to circular; longitudinal shape: smooth surface.

(11) Spandex fiber: cross-sectional shape: irregular shape, round, potato-shaped; longitudinal shape: dark surface, showing unclear bone stripes.

(12) Polyester, nylon and polypropylene fibers: cross-sectional shape: round or irregular; longitudinal shape: smooth.

(13) Vinylon fiber: cross-sectional shape: waist circular, skin-core structure; longitudinal shape: 1-2 grooves.

3. Density gradient method: It is based on the characteristics of various fibers with different densities to identify the fibers.

(1) The system of xylene carbon tetrachloride is generally selected for the formulation of density gradient liquid.

(2) Calibration of density gradient tube is usually done by precise sphere method.

(3) Measuring and calculating, deoiling, drying and defoaming pretreatment of the fibers to be measured, making the pellets into balance, and measuring the density of the fibers according to the suspension position of the fibers.

4. Fluorescence method: Ultraviolet fluorescent lamp is used to irradiate the fibers. The fibers are identified according to their different fluorescent properties and different fluorescent colors.

The fluorescent colours of various fibers are shown in detail:

(1) Cotton and wool fibers: light yellow

(2) Mercerized cotton fiber: light red

(3) Jute fiber: purple-brown

(4) Jute, silk and nylon fibers: light blue

(5) Viscose Fiber: White Purple Shadow

(6) Light viscose fibers: pale yellow purple shadows

(7) Polyester fibers: white light, blue sky and bright

(8) Vinylon has optical fiber dimension: light yellow purple shadow.

5. Combustion method: According to the different chemical composition of fibers, the combustion characteristics are also different, thus roughly classifying the major types of fibers.

The combustion characteristics of several common fibers are distinguished and compared as follows:

(1) Cotton, hemp, viscose and copper-ammonia fibers: close to flame: non-shrinking and non-melting; contact flame: rapid combustion; leaving flame: continuing combustion; odor: the smell of burning paper; residue characteristics: a small amount of gray-black or gray-white ash.

(2) Silk and wool fibers: close to flame: curl and melt; contact flame: curl, melt, burn; leave flame: slow combustion sometimes self-extinguish; odor: smell of burning hair; residue characteristics: loose and brittle black particles or coke-like.

(3) Polyester fiber: close to flame: melting; contact flame: melting, smoking, slow burning; leaving flame: continue burning, sometimes self-extinguishing; odor: special fragrance and sweetness; residue characteristics: hard black balls.

(4) nylon fiber: near flame: melting; contact flame: melting, smoking; leaving flame: self-extinguishing; odor: amino odor; residue characteristics: hard pale brown transparent ball.

(5) Acrylic fiber: close to flame: melting; contact flame: melting, smoking; leave flame: continue to burn, smoking; odor: pungent; residue characteristics: black irregular beads, fragile.

(6) Polypropylene fiber: near flame: melting; contact flame: melting, burning; leaving flame: continuing burning; odor: paraffin odor; residue characteristics: gray-white hard transparent balls.

(7) Spandex fiber: near flame: melting; contact flame: melting, burning; leaving flame: self-extinguishing; odor: peculiar smell; residue characteristics: white gelatinous.

(8) Polyvinyl chloride fibers: near flame: melting; contact flame: melting, burning, smoking; leaving flame: self-extinguishing; odor: pungent odor; residue characteristics: dark brown lump.

(9) Vinylon fiber: close to flame: melting; contact flame: melting, burning; leaving flame: continue burning, smoking; odor: unique fragrance; residue characteristics: irregular brown lump.

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