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Textile Basic Knowledge (2)

Time : 2019-05-25 Hits : 24

20190525131144_479

4. Common Textile Concepts:

(1). Warp direction, warp yarn and warp yarn density - the direction of fabric length; this yarn is called warp yarn; the number of yarns arranged in an inch is warp density (warp density);

(2). Weft direction, weft density and weft yarn density - fabric width direction; the yarn in this direction is called weft yarn, and the number of yarns arranged in an inch is weft density (weft density).

(3). Density - used to indicate the number of yarns per unit length of shuttle fabrics, usually within 1 inch or 10 centimeters. Our national standard stipulates that the number of yarns within 10 centimeters is used to denote density, but textile enterprises are still accustomed to using the number of yarns within 1 inch to denote density. As is commonly seen, "45X45/108X58" means 45 warp and weft yarns, with warp and weft densities of 108 and 58.

(4). Width - The effective width of fabrics is usually expressed in inches or centimeters. Commonly used are 36 inches, 44 inches, 56-60 inches and so on. They are called narrow width, medium width and wide width respectively. Fabrics over 60 inches are usually called wide width cloth. Today, the width of ultra-wide fabrics in China can reach 360 centimeters. Width is generally marked after density. For example, if the width of the fabric mentioned in 3 is added, the width is expressed as "45X45/108X58/60". That is, the width is 60 inches.

(5). Gravimetric - The weight of fabric is generally the gram of the weight of the fabric per square meter. Gravimetric is an important technical index of knitted fabrics, and the weight of woolen fabrics is usually regarded as an important technical index. Denim weight is usually expressed in "oz" (OZ), which is the number of Oz per square yard of fabric weight, such as 7 oz, 12 oz denim, etc.

(6). Yarn dyeing-first dyeing fabric in Japan refers to the process of dyeing yarn or filament and then weaving with yarn dyeing. This kind of fabric is called "yarn dyeing fabric". The factories that produce yarn dyeing and weaving are generally called dyeing factories, such as jeans, and most shirt fabrics are dyed fabrics.

5. Classification of textile fabrics:

1. Classification according to different processing methods

(1) Woven fabrics: woven fabrics consisting of yarns arranged vertically, i.e. horizontally and vertically, interwoven on looms according to certain rules. There are denim, brocade, linen, etc.

(2) Knitted fabrics: Fabrics formed by looping yarns are divided into weft knitting and warp knitting. A. Weft knitted fabrics are made by feeding weft yarns from weft direction to the working needles of the knitting machine, so that the yarns are bent into a circle sequentially and interwoven. B. Warp knitted fabrics are made of a group of yarns or groups of yarns arranged in parallel and fed into all working needles of the knitting machine in the warp direction, while forming a circle.

(3) Nonwovens: loose fibers are bonded or stitched together. At present, adhesive and puncture are two main methods. This processing method can greatly simplify the process, reduce costs and improve labor productivity, and has broad prospects for development.

2. Classification by yarn material of fabric

(1) Pure textiles: The raw materials of the fabrics are all made of the same kind of fibers, such as cotton, wool, silk and polyester fabrics.

(2) Blended fabrics: The raw materials of the fabric are two or more different kinds of fibers, which are blended into yarns, such as polyester-viscose, polyester-acrylonitrile, polyester-cotton and other blended fabrics.

(3) Blended fabrics: The raw materials of the fabric are single yarns of two kinds of fibers, which are combined to form ply yarns, such as low elastic polyester filament and medium-length blending, polyester staple filament and low elastic polyester filament blending to form ply yarns, etc.

(4) Interwoven fabrics: The raw materials of the two directions system consist of different fibre yarns, such as silk-rayon interwoven ancient satin, nylon-rayon interwoven Nylon-Cotton interwoven nylon and so on.

3. Classification according to whether the fabric material is dyed or not

(1) White fabrics: raw materials that have not been bleached and dyed are processed into fabrics, which are also called raw fabrics in silk weaving.

(2) Dyed fabrics: the raw materials or fancy yarns after bleaching are processed into fabrics, and silk fabrics are also known as ripe fabrics.

4. Classification of Novel Fabrics

(1) Adhesive cloth: Two pieces of fabric backed to each other are bonded together. Adhesive fabrics, such as organic fabrics, knitted fabrics, nonwovens, vinyl plastic films, can also be combined in different ways.

(2) Flocking processing cloth: The cloth is covered with short and dense fibre fluff, which has a velvet style and can be used as clothing and decorative materials.

(3) Foam laminated fabrics: Foam plastics are adhering to woven or knitted fabrics as base fabrics, mostly used as cold-proof clothing.

(4) Coated fabrics: coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chloroprene rubber on the base of fabric or knitted fabrics, with excellent waterproof function.

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