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Preparation and application of surface metallized functional textiles

Time : 2022-06-20 Hits : 26

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With the improvement of scientific and technological level and people's pursuit of high-quality life, materials are developing in the direction of multi-functional integration.Surface metallized functional textiles integrate thermal insulation, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-static and other functions, and are comfortable to wear and easy to handle. They can not only meet the diverse needs of People's Daily life, but also meet the scientific research requirements of aviation, aerospace, deep-sea and other harsh environments.At present, the common methods for mass production of surface metallized functional textiles include electroless plating, coating method, vacuum plating and electroplating method.

Electroless plating

Electroless plating is a common way of metallizing fibers or fabrics.It adopts redox reaction to reduce the metal ions in the solution to deposit a metal layer on the surface of the substrate with catalytic activity.The most common is electroless silver plating on nylon filament, nylon knitted and woven fabrics, conductive materials for the production of smart textiles, and radiation protection clothing.


The coating method

The coating method is to apply one or more layers of coatings composed of resin and metal powder with conductive properties on the surface of the fabric, which can be sprayed or brushed to make the fabric have a certain infrared reflection function, so as to achieve the effect of cooling or keeping warm,mainly used for window screen or curtain spraying or brush coating. This method is low in price, but has disadvantages such as hard hand feeling and inability to wash with water.

Vacuum plating

According to the difference of coating, material, the way from solid to gas, and the transport process of coating atoms in vacuum, vacuum plating can be divided into vacuum evaporation, vacuum magnetron sputtering, vacuum ion plating and vacuum chemical vapor deposition.However, only vacuum magnetron sputtering is actually used in the large-scale production of textiles.The production process of vacuum magnetron sputtering is environmentally friendly and pollution-free. Different metals can be plated according to different needs, but the equipment is expensive and the maintenance requirements are high. After plasma treatment on the surface of polyester and polyamide, vacuum magnetron sputtering silver plating is used to prepare silver-coated antibacterial fiber, which can be blended or interwoven with cotton, viscose, polyester and other fibers, and widely used in textile and clothing, home textiles, industrial textiles and other three categories of terminal products.

 

Electroplating method

Electroplating is a plating method in which the metal to be plated is used as the cathode and the substrate to be plated as the anode in an aqueous solution of metal salts, and direct current is applied. Due to electrolysis, metal is deposited on the surface of the substrate to be plated.Because most of the textiles are organic polymer materials, it is usually necessary to first coat metal by vacuum magnetron sputtering, and then electroplating metal to obtain conductive materials.At the same time, according to different needs, different amount of metal plating, can produce different surface resistance of the material. Electroplating is often used to produce conductive cloth, conductive nonwoven material, conductive sponge soft electromagnetic shielding material and so on to meet different uses.


 

(Source:China Textile Leader)


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