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Application of nanomaterials in textile functional finishing

Time : 2020-05-11 Hits : 13

Nanomaterials are materials whose size has reached the nanoscale and their properties have changed. The size change of nanomaterials makes them have surface effect, small size effect and quantum size effect. Textile functional finishing is a method that can satisfy the special function of textile in production and life and increase its added value. It has become one of the development trends of textile industry to prepare functional textiles with single or multiple properties such as antibacterial, anti-ultraviolet, anti-static, self-cleaning, conductive and anti-wrinkle, etc.


Ultraviolet resistant finish


Anti-ultraviolet finishing is to treat the nano material to the fiber surface and make it further fixed on the textile. When the light irradiates the textile, the quantum size effect and surface effect of the nanoparticles make most of the ultraviolet radiation be absorbed or reflected, thus reducing the amount of ultraviolet radiation to the fabric. At present, TiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, SiO2 and other nanoparticles are mainly used in textile anti-uv finishing.


Self-cleaning finish


There are two main principles of textile self-cleaning and finishing: superhydrophobic and photocatalytic. The principle of superhydrophobic self-cleaning can be explained by the surface contact Angle, the larger the contact Angle, the better the water repellency, and the key to increase the contact Angle is to improve the micro-roughness of the fabric surface or reduce its surface energy.


Photocatalytic self-cleaning is mainly based on the photocatalytic reaction of nano TiO2. Under light conditions, TiO2 can undergo strong REDOX reaction and generate hydroxyl free radicals, which can decompose organic matter. Compared with superhydrophobic surface finishing, photocatalytic surface finishing can catalyze the oxidation of pollutants only under the irradiation of sunlight, and the decomposing products are environmentally friendly and pollution-free. There is no loss of energy in the catalytic process, so it is an environmentally friendly technology with more advantages.

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Antibacterial finishing


The quantum size effect of nanometer antibacterial materials can make them absorb photons or produce their own electronic transition, resulting in the change of energy levels, the enhancement of reduction and oxidation, and the production of a large number of active hydroxyl radicals and oxygen radicals that can kill bacteria in a short time. At present, TiO2, ZnO, Ag and other nanomaterials have been used in antibacterial finishing of textiles.

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Antistatic finish


The nanometer material antistatic finishing of the fabric makes the charge conduct and consume quickly through the material's conduction, so that the fabric can achieve the effect of antistatic. At present, nano materials in textile antistatic finishing mainly include TiO2, ZnO, Ag, graphene, etc.

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Common conductive nanomaterials have many problems when used alone: precious metals have good conductive effect but high price; Carbon materials are easy to deposit, weak binding force with fabrics and have darker colors. Therefore, a variety of conductive nanomaterials are often combined to make up for their respective defects through the synergistic effect of the materials in order to achieve a better finishing effect.


Conductive to sort out


Under normal conditions, the fabric surface is insulated due to the lack of free-moving electrons, giving the fabric electrical conductivity can make it adapt to the diverse needs of modern life. Graphene and carbon nanotubes are widely used in the conductive finishing of fabrics due to their excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical properties.


Other finishing


Nanomaterials can also be used for flame retardant, electromagnetic shielding, infrared absorption and other functions. The high load ZnO cotton fabric was prepared by in-situ ammonia fumigation after weak oxidation treatment by ling chao.


With the increasing complexity of people's living environment, single-function textiles can no longer meet people's needs, so it is the general trend to develop high-performance and multi-functional products. Functional nano-materials are an important part of textile functional finishing. With the rapid development of nanotechnology, nano-finishing textiles with multiple functions will become one of the mainstream trends in the future.


For more technical content, please refer to the article "research progress of nanomaterials in textile functional finishing" in the 4th issue of textile daily in 2020.

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