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Mahia ngā pūngāwerewere kāore e taea -- Ara Wetereo O te Pūngāwerewere Tuhituhi Nui

wā:2021-03-08 Ngā Taunga:

I roto i te āhua, Ka taea e ngā pūngāwerewere te hanga i ngā papa hiraka kaha rawa atu i te ao, ā, ka taea hoki e rātou te waihanga i ngā papa mīhanga pai ake i te āhuatanga mīrau, i ētahi wā, i roto i ētahi āhuatanga, ahakoa te āhuatanga o te hiraka.. Ko ngā pūngāwerewere\' me te hiraka i waihangatia e rātou, he mea roa rawa nā ngā kaipānui. Ākuanei, Kua hangaia e nga kaipūtaiao nga kākahu ārai hiraka tuhituhi ka whakamahia ki ētahi taupānga maha, mai i ngā pueru tino mīhini ki ngā wae pūmau i roto i ngā taputapu tākaro me ngā mīhini. Ko te tikanga whakanao o te hiraka tūturu e whakawhirinaki ana ki te tākaro pāmu o ngā pūngāwerewere hei kohi hiraka, engari ko tenei momo kohinga me kaha tonu ki te mahi whakangao me te whai hua. Heoi anō, Kei te pā mai tonu ētahi whakamātau ki ētahi whakamātautau o nga papa ā-pūngā, pēnei i ngā pūmua hiraka pūngāwerewere (mokamoka) me whakaputa i roto i tētahi kaihautū kē. Ahakoa kua tāututia e nga kaipūtaiao he tokomaha ngā kaipūtaiao hāngai, pērā ki ētahi o ngā moroiti meroiti, eukariote, tipu, ngā kararehe ira-ā-ira, he iti o rātau hua, me nga pūmua hiraka pūngāwerewere e whakaputaina ana e rātau he pāpaku wai rawa. Ahakoa ko te tukanga takahuri o muri ka tino pai rawa atu te whakapainga i te aratuka whakanao me te hanganga kākahu kōhanga, kaore tonu ōna āhuatanga pūkaha e kore e taurite ki te papa hiraka parakore. Nā reira i mōhio ai a Jan Theon rāua ko Ana E haere ake ana i te Whare Wānanga o Āneta i Huitene ki ngā take matua e pā ana ki ngā āhuatanga o ngā kākahu hiraka pūngāwerewere, mā te taurite i ngā painga me ngā hua kore o ngā rongoā rerekē, Kua whakatūria e rātau he ara ara hei whakamōkito i ngā kākahu hiraka waituhi hou, pūngāwerewere, pūngāwerewere, kāore e taea e rātau te whakam. Ko a ratau tirohanga whakamua ka whakaputaina i roto i te pukapuka hou ACS Nano, whai wāhi "Te mahi i nga mea kaore e taea e te Pungawerewere-he mapi ara ki te muka hiraka hiranga nui."




I roto i te whānui, ka taea e ia pūngāwerewere te hanga i ngā momo kākahu hiraka e whitu, he rerekē ngā āhuatanga pūkaha. Ko enei muka hiraka he mea hanga noa i nga pungawerewere hiraka, ka tohaina i nga rohe taapiri o te rohe o nga rohe tukurua kei roto 110-130 waikawa amino. Ko enei rohe kati i roto i nga poraka hiraka he mea motuhake me te whakahaere i te wairewa o te hiraka me te hanga muka whakahaere, i nga rohe tukurua e whakahaere ana i nga taonga miihini o te hiraka. Roto i a ratou, te muka hiraka uaua rawa atu (Tōia) ko te nuinga o te pūmua hiraka tārewa (MASPs), me tona rohe tukurua kei roto te nuinga o te waahanga Poly-Ala me te rohe tukurua-whai-glycine (Gly). I nga repe hiraka o te pungawerewere, te kukū o te pūmua hiraka he teitei rite 50% (W / V). Ahakoa kāore anō mātou kia mārama katoa me pēhea e noho tonu ai te pūmua hiraka ki tētahi hinu tiketike, ā, kāore e puta he parataiao, engari e mohiotia ana i tenei ra, ko te aratau rokiroki ko te nuinga o te wāhi hei tukurua mā tētahi āhua matapōkere kua penapenatia ki rō whenu hiraka, me te rohe alpha helix terminal ka taea te hanga i te pata hiraka hei pupuri i tetahi hautanga wai, ko te nuinga o te āpitihanga hei āwhina ki te apa apa o te rokiroki ā-roto o te papatāraka hiraka. Ko te whakahiatotanga o nga muka hiraka o te pungawerewere e mau ana ki te ngongo tuku, tae atu ki te heke o te uara pH me te whakapakaritanga o te ahotea kuti kutikuti, e ahu atu ana ki te pultrusion ka mutu ko te hangai o te pungawerewere hiraka. He aha te mea whakamere rawa ko nga rohe N me te C o te pūmua hiraka pūngāwerewere hei "lock and trigger" i te wa o te whakahiatotanga. Ka iti haere te rohe n-terminal i te pH iti, kia rite ai ki te tauira o te hononga o te whatunga, maukati i te pūmua hiraka pūngāwerewere. I raro i te awetanga o te uara pH me te hae kutikuti, te rohe C-kāpeka i hangaia β-lamellar nucleus, i whakatairangahia te hurihanga o te rohe waikawa waikawa amino hei β-lamellkarihi raka me te keutēnei "lock and trigger" ka huri te tikanga i te pūmua hiraka wai hai kāpō mārō.



Nga waahanga matua o te fibrin i te hiraka pungawerewere


He maha nga waahanga nui e pa ana ki nga muka hiraka o te pungawerewere
Ko te pūmua hiraka macroampullary he anisotropic i roto i te hanganga nanoscale, me ona raina pani β-ko te karihi o te lamellar he rohe tioata (β-karaihe), kua whakauruhia ki te kopu amorphous. Ko tana mahi nui ko te whakahaere i te kaha kaha o nga kaka hiraka o te pungawerewere. Ko tēnei hanganga te kī hei whakatau i ōna āhuatanga pūkaha. Ahakoa ko te whanaungatanga motuhake i waenga i te tohu o te whikoritanga me nga miihini kaore i te maarama, e mohiotia ana ko te rahinga o te rohe karaihe ano he mahi nui ki te whakatutuki i te kaha o te kaha, te whakaheke i te kaha me te maro i roto i te whaihanga kinetic.
Ko te pūmua hiraka he pūmua huna, kia tika ai rātau ki te pūnaha pūnaha kia uru ai ki te ara ngaro. Ko te hiahia ki te kawe i ngā pūmua hiraka ki te pūnaha kiriuwhi e whakauru ai te whakamahi i ngā mekameka taha e pāpāho ai i te tauhohenga i waenganui i te pūnaha kiriuwhi β-waahanga tioata me nga papa, he whakaaro nui mo nga muka hiraka hangarua.
He pai ake te Polyalanine i te alanine kotahi i te repellency o te wai me te hanga muka hiraka. Ngā matapae mai i te Pātengi Raraunga Zipper i runga anō i ngā waikawa maha (Tapamaha-Ala, Poli-Val, Pārōtini-Ā-Ile) tohu he nui ake te waikawa o te waikawa polyamino-wai β-taunekeneke karihi lamellar. Ko te take i kowhiri ai te pungawerewere ki te kore e whakamahi i enei waikawa amino e rua hei rite ki te purakau hiraka makuramuri na te kaha o te kaha o te wai, na te mea ka mau pea nga rohe tukurua i te wa e haere ana i te omanga endoplasmic. Of course, nā te hangarau o tēnei rāā te hangarau i taea ai te kōtuitanga o ngā papa hiraka tuhituhi i roto i ngā pūnaha mokomoko, mā te here i ngā mekameka waikawa amino pēnei i te waea me te ūwhāwhā ki ētahi atu mekameka me te whakaatu tika tonu atu ki roto i te pūtau, te karo i te hiahia ki te whakawhiti i te marautanga endoplasmic. Heoi, na te kaha o te hydrophobicity o enei mekameka waikawao te akorangarua he uaua ki te kaimanaaki ki te whakaputa muka i roto i te karihi. Of course, mā te hanga i ngā papa kākahu ki ngā whakarewa māori me te huri ka whakaitia pea ngā whakaritenga pūtea, engari me whai tikanga hanga waatea rawa atu hoki.

Whakamahara mo te whakamōnuku i ngā kākahu āhua hiraka hōu rawa, pūngāwerewere hōu
I runga i nga ariā me nga tikanga e mohiotia ana, kua whakarāpopoto ngā kaituhi i tētahi ara ara mo te kōtuitanga o ngā kākahu hiraka tuhituhi nui rawa. Tuatahi, ngā tikanga e whakamahia ana i roto i ngā ariā ā-ariā (i te silico) ka taea te whakamahi hei waihanga i te waikawa polyamino (poly-val, poly-ile) Tuhinga o mua β-tioata mai i nga momo rereke e whakanui ake ana i te waahi raupapa. Ka taea ēnei tioata te arotake mō te pūmautanga me te kaha o ngā whakatarunatanga o te hihiri rāpoi ngota. I te mea kaore e taea e nga pungawerewere te hanga hiraka ma te whakamahi i nga rawa-kore i toro atu ki tawhiti, ko te mea hou i whakauruhia ka kawe mai he painga i te hiraka waihanga. o te akoranga, nga rohe toutou i hangaia e te hou synthesized β-Me aromatawai nga tioata na nga whakaohooho hihiko ngota me nga whakamatautau whakamatautau. I te pae hopea, ka taea te whakamātautau i ngā kākahu hiraka hāngai hou i hangaia mā te āhuatanga mītini me ngā hanganga ki ngā kākahu hiraka i hangaia e ngā pūngāwerewere.



Whakamahara mo te whakamōnuku i ngā kākahu āhua hiraka hōu rawa, pūngāwerewere hōu


Hono hono te tuhinga: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c08933

(Pūtake: Tuhinga o mua i roto i te Science Polymer)