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Is it yarn that makes a product stretchy or the type of stitch?

July 04,2023

rubber yarn

Diene elastic fibers are commonly known as rubber or rubber wire, and the elongation is generally between 100% and 300%. The main chemical component is sulfide polyisoprene, which has good chemical and physical properties such as high temperature resistance, acid and alkali resistance, wear resistance, etc., and is widely used in the knitting industry such as socks and ribbed cuffs. Rubber silk is an early used elastic fiber, because it is mainly made into thick yarn, so the use of fabric is very limited.



Polyurethane elastic fiber refers to a block copolymer made of polyurethane as the main component of the fiber, China is referred to as Spandex, the original product name in the United States, later renamed Lycra, the European name Elastane, Japan named Neolon, Germany named Dorlastan. Its elasticity comes from its molecular structure of a block copolymer network of so-called "soft" and "hard" segments. With the different block copolymers, the spinning process is different, and the elasticity and dyeing and finishing properties of the fibers are also different after forming different "segment" network structures.

The spinning methods of spandex include dry spinning, wet spinning, chemical reaction spinning and melt spinning. Dry spinning technology is the most common method for spandex industrial production at present, with the advantages of fast spinning speed (1000 m/min), small spinning size, good product quality, and small production workshop area, but at the same time there are serious environmental pollution and high cost disadvantages. On the contrary, melt spinning technology, without the use of solvents, coagulants, no waste water treatment problems, low production cost, has great development potential, is one of the hot spots of current research.

Spandex is the earliest developed and most widely used elastic fiber, the production technology is the most mature variety.


polyester ester elastic fiber

Polyester ester elastic fiber is an elastic fiber made from polyester and polyester copolymer by melt spinning, which was first produced by Teijin Company in 1990. Polyester ester elastic fiber is similar to polyurethane elastic fiber in structure, and also has "segment" structure. The "soft" chain segment is mainly polyester chain segment, which has good softness, long chain and easy to stretch and deform; The "hard" chain segment is a polyester chain segment, which is relatively stiff, easy to crystallize, and the chain is short, which acts as a node when the fiber is stressed and deformed, giving the elastic recovery performance and determining the strength and heat resistance of the fiber.

Polyester ester elastic fiber is not only high strength, elasticity is also very good, at 50% elongation, the elasticity of medium strength elastic fiber has been comparable to spandex, the melting point is also high, and PET fiber blend, can be dyed at 120~130 ° C, so polyester fiber can also be processed into elastic textiles. In addition, their light resistance is excellent, chlorine bleaching resistance, acid and alkali resistance are better than ordinary spandex. Because of its good acid and alkali resistance, the fabric composed of it and polyester can also be processed with alkali reduction to improve the drape of the fabric.

This kind of fiber also has the advantages of cheap raw materials, easy production and processing, and is a promising type of fiber.


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