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Development and classification of chemical fibers

December 20,2022

After the 1960s, the development of petrochemical industry promoted the development of chemical fiber industry, the formation of polyester fiber, polyamide fiber, polyacrylonitrile fiber and polypropylene fiber mainly four chemical fiber varieties, the production period exceeds the natural fiber.

A series of synthetic fibers, such as acrylic fiber, Vinylon, polyester and two-fiber, were successfully developed and put into industrial production. Nowadays, chemical fiber has become an important material resource in social and economic development.


Using natural or synthetic polymer materials as raw materials, through chemical or physical processing and made of fibers collectively. Because of the different sources of polymer compounds used, it can be divided into natural polymer materials as raw materials of artificial fiber and synthetic fiber with synthetic polymer materials as raw materials. Among the materials used to produce textiles, cotton, hemp, silk and wool (wool) have a long history. But natural resources are limited after all, cotton production is about 50 kg/hectare, silkworm spinning also need to plant mulberry trees, increase wool to develop animal husbandry. So chemists began to work out how to spin yarn and weave cloth from cheaper, more abundant materials called chemical fibers.

Fiber length, thickness, whiteness, luster and other properties can be adjusted during the production process. And respectively has the advantages of light resistance, wear resistance, easy to wash and dry, no mildew, no moth. Widely used in the manufacture of clothing fabrics, press cloth, transport belts, hoses, ropes, fishing nets, electrical insulation wire, medical stitches, tire cord cloth and parachutes. Generally, the polymer compound can be made into solution or melt, pressed out from the fine hole of the spinneret, and then solidified into fiber. The product can be continuous filament, cut into a certain length of short fiber or uncut strands of silk.


Chemical fiber is a kind of fiber with textile properties, which is made from natural polymer compound or synthetic polymer compound by preparation of spinning stock solution, spinning and post-treatment.

Chemical fibers are divided into two categories:

(1)Artificial fibers are mainly viscose fiber, nitrate fiber, acetate fiber, copper ammonium fiber and artificial protein fiber, which viscose fiber is divided into ordinary viscose fiber and outstanding performance of new viscose fiber (such as high wet modulus fiber, super viscose fiber and long-term crimped viscose fiber, etc.).

(2)Synthetic fibers, synthetic fibers mainly include polyamide 6 fiber (known as nylon or nylon 6 in China) nylon dty yarnnylon acy yarn /nylon SCY yarn/nylon RCY yarn, polyacrylonitrile fiber (known as acrylic fiber in China), polyester fiber (known as polyester in China) polyester dty yarn /polyester ACY yarn/polyester SCY yarn/polyester RCY yarn, polypropylene fiber (known as polypropylene in China), polyvinyl formaldehyde fiber (known as Vinylon in China) and special fibers (including the corrosion resistant fiber made of tetrafluoroethylene polymerization, High temperature resistant fibers above 200℃, high strength and high modulus fibers with strength greater than 10 g/denier and modulus greater than 200 g/denier, as well as refractory fibers, elastomer fibers, functional fibers, etc.). In the 1950s, research on the modification of synthetic fibers was carried out, mainly to improve the properties of synthetic fibers such as hygroscopicity, dyeing, antistatic, anti-combustion, anti-fouling and anti-pilling by physical or chemical methods, and at the same time to increase the variety of chemical fibers. Synthetic fiber is made of synthetic polymer compounds as raw materials of chemical fibers, such as polyester fiber, polyamide fiber, polyacrylonitrile fiber. Chemical fiber has the advantages of high strength, wear resistance, low density, good elasticity, no mildew, not afraid of insects, easy to wash and dry, but its disadvantages are poor dyeing, large static electricity, light resistance and weather resistance, poor water absorption.



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