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The style characteristic of common cotton type fabric and classification are all here!

Time : 2019-07-29 Hits : 12

Cotton fabric is favored by consumers for its excellent natural fiber performance and comfortable wearing.According to the processing process, cotton fabrics are divided into two major categories: grey fabrics and yarn dyed fabrics.


The natural color fabric (or raw white fabric) includes natural color cotton cloth, cotton-type chemical fiber blend, pure spinning, interwoven fabric and medium and long white blank fabric, etc. The main varieties are plain cloth, poplin, twill, gabardine, serge, khaki, sateen, hemp yarn, flannelette blank, etc. 9 categories;The main varieties of color fabrics are wired suiting, yarn-dyed flannelette, yarn-dyed straight tribute, striped gingham, bedspread, yarn-dyed poplin and cambric, yarn-dyed seersucker, yarn-dyed medium length tweed, workcloth, etc.

1. Plain fabrics

(1) plain cloth

Plain fabric is plain fabric, its warp and weft yarn density and warp and weft yarn density are relatively close, so the warp and weft tightness ratio is about 1:1, and the warp and weft tightness of plain fabric is about 50%.Plain fabric has the characteristics of simple structure and strong texture.


According to the difference of yarn density, plain cloth can be divided into fine plain cloth, medium plain cloth and coarse plain cloth.Generally, the warp and weft yarn density of fine plain cloth is less than 20tex (more than 29 British branches), medium plain cloth is 21 ~ 32tex(28 ~ 19 British branches), and coarse plain belt is more than 32tex(less than 18 British branches).The appearance of plain cloth fabric requires smooth and smooth surface, even and plump.Among them, the cloth body of fine plain cloth is light and thin, smooth and clean, feel pliable, rich in the natural luster of cotton fiber, and there are fewer impurities in the cloth.Coarse plain cloth is otherwise, its quality of a material is generally more coarse, its advantage is thick cloth body, firm and durable.The texture and appearance of medium plain cloth are between coarse and fine plain cloth.

(2) poplin

Poplin is a low count (high count), high density plain or small jacquard fabric.Its longitudinal compactness is 65% ~ 80%.The latitude compactness is slightly lower than that of plain cloth, and the ratio of longitude to latitude compactness is about 5:3.The style characteristics of poplin fabric are: the appearance of the fabric is fine, the warp and weft yarn is arranged neatly, the yarn is dried evenly, the cloth is smooth and even, the grain is clear and plump, the hand feel is soft and quite slippery, with silk feeling.In addition, because the warp density of poplin is much larger than the weft density, the weft yarn in the fabric is more straight and the warp yarn is more flexible, that is to say, there are diamond-shaped particles formed by the raised part of the warp on the fabric surface. The fullness of diamond-shaped particles is one of the important conditions for the poplin fabric to have a good appearance.


According to its yarn structure and properties, poplin fabric can be divided into yarn poplin, half line poplin (warp and weft) and full line poplin 3 kinds.According to its organizational structure, can be divided into plain poplin, poplin and jacquard poplin 3 kinds;According to the spinning process, it can be divided into ordinary poplin, semi-combed poplin (warp combed, weft non-combed) and fully combed poplin.According to processing, can be divided into bleached poplin, colored poplin and printed poplin, etc.


(3) mull and voile

Both mair and voile are lightweight fabrics with low thread density.The yarn density of maier yarn is 10 ~ 15tex.The voile USES combed yarn and thread, and the single yarn is usually J9tex ~ J15tex, and the ply yarn is J6.5 Tex ×2 or less.


2. Twill fabrics

Twill fabrics are characterized by their apparent twill lines (commonly known as lines) on the fabric surface.Khaki twill requires "evenness, depth, and straightness"."Even" means the twill is equidistant;The so-called "deep" toe twill line to concave and convex clear;The so-called "straight" refers to the twill line yarn float length should be equal, and no skew bending phenomenon.Uniform and straight twill is the general style of twill fabrics.


There are many kinds of twill fabrics, which can be divided into left twill and right twill.According to the organization can be divided into single twill and double twill 2 kinds;In the business can be divided into twill, serge, gabardine and khaki, etc.

(1) twill (middy twill)

Twill is a 2/1 twill weave. From its surface, the twill line on the front is more obvious, while the twill line on the back is less obvious.The texture of twill cloth is closer and thicker than plain cloth, and feels softer.Twill can be divided into three types: twill, half twill and full twill.According to the density of yarn can be divided into coarse twill and fine twill 2 kinds.


(2) serge

Serge is a 2/2 twill weave, with distinct degrees of twill on both sides. Serge has a tighter, thicker texture than twill.According to the use of different types of yarn, can be divided into yarn serge, half line serge and full line serge 3 kinds.Serge on the left, serge on the half and full line, serge on the right.


(3) gahardine

Gabardine is also 2/2 twill weave, according to the different types of yarn used, can also be divided into three kinds of gabardine, gabardine half line and gabardine full line.Same yarn gabardine for left twill, half line and full line gabardine for right twill.


(4) khaki

According to the different types of yarn used, khaki can also be divided into three types: khaki, half-line khaki and full-line khaki.Gauze khaki generally adopts 3/1 twill organization, so in its front, the twill line is thick and obvious, the reverse twill line is not obvious, it is called single khaki, its twill direction is left oblique, texture is closer and solid.Half line khaki and full line khaki most of the use of 2/2 twill organization, front and back of the same lines, so called double khaki.The line khaki also has a 3/1 twill weave, where the right twill on the front is thicker and more prominent than the 2/2 twill.


Serge, gabardine, double-sided card all adopt 2/2 twill weave, the difference mainly lies in the different warp and weft tightness of the fabric, and the different warp and weft tightness ratio.Among them, serge's warp and weft tightness and warp and weft tightness ratio are small, so the fabric is relatively loose, the warp and weft yarns of the cloth weave point is clear, the grain is wide and flat;The warp and weft compactness ratio of gabardine is larger than serge, and the warp and weft compactness ratio of gabardine is about 1 times larger than that of serge, so the cloth body is crisp, thick, not hard, wear-resistant and not cracked, the spacing of cloth texture is small, the twill line is raised, and the peak and valley are obvious.The warp and weft tightness and the warp and weft tightness ratio of the double-sided card are the largest, so the cloth body is thick, tight and stiff, with fine grain, twill line is more obvious than gabardine.

3, satin drill

Satin drill is a high grade cotton fabric woven in satin weave.Sateen can be divided into straight sateen (organized by warp sateen) and horizontal sateen (organized by weft sateen).In the actual production, the sateen fabric usually USES five satin lines.


The warp and weft yarns of damask fabrics generally have the same density.Straight satin fabric warp yarn density is lower than the weft, warp satin effect is good, feel thick.The warp yarn density of sateen fabric is higher than that of weft.The twist coefficient of warp can be higher and weft lower for sateen fabrics.Small twist coefficient, soft feel of fabric, can reduce looping.

4, Dimity yarn

Dimity yarns are generally woven with varying weft weights and flat textures, giving dimity a wide and narrow texture on the surface of the fabric.The texture of hemp yarn fabric should be prominent and straight, the tension of warp and weft yarn is even and arranged evenly, the cloth surface is smooth and the cloth edge is straight and neat.The twist of the warp yarns is about 10% higher than that of the ordinary yarns. The twist of the weft yarns is about 10% lower than that of the ordinary fabrics.


5, flannelette

Flannelette can be divided into two categories according to its processing mode: grey flannelette and yarn-dyed flannelette.Yarn-dyed flannelette can be divided into single side corduroy, double corduroy, double concave and convex velvet, lining velvet, color grid velvet, double weft velvet, abrasive velvet and other products.Flannelette fabric is mainly the weft pull. Usually, the density ratio of warp and weft yarn of single-serge is 1:1.5 ~ 1:2.The density ratio of warp and weft yarns is about 1∶2.The weft above 58.3 Tex is used for thick pile and below 58.3 Tex for thin pile.Velvet fabric from the effect of nap, under the condition of satisfying weft strength, low twist is good.Warp and weft yarn twist is different, can make the fabric feel thick and soft, dense even down.The tightness of flannelette is greater than that of warp.The usual warp/weft tightness ratio is about 1:1.7 for double-sided serge, and 1:1.2 to 1:1.7 for single-sided serge.


Flannelette fabric has a large difference in warp and weft density, with a small twist and a soft texture. After being brushed and shaved, the surface of the grey cloth becomes fluffy. The surface of the fabric has a fluffy fiber and an air layer is increased, thus the thermal conductivity is reduced and the heat preservation is enhanced.

(source: official account of textile guide)

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