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Automobile textile material application status (2) : airbag

Time : 2021-10-04 Hits : 86

Car with the present situation of the application of textile materials (2) : airbags a airbag is an important part of vehicle passive safety system, domestic production enterprises of airbag wire mainly with Zhejiang Hailide New Material Co., Ltd., jiangsu hengli chemical fiber Co., Ltd., China what group Co., Ltd and invista special fiber (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., etc. Among them, Zhejiang Hailide is the main manufacturer of polyester airbag yarn, with a global market share of more than 60%. Invista is a major manufacturer of nylon airbag wire. Foreign manufacturers of airbag filament mainly include Toray Corporation of Japan, PHP FIBERS of Germany, etc. With the improvement of relevant domestic laws and standards, as well as the breakthrough of the industrialization technology of the whole process of processing fiber, fabric and products for airbag, China's airbag industry will have better development.

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Airbag fiber selection

Since the invention of the airbag, the majority of the market share of the airbag wire for high strength nylon 66 complex wire. Polyamide has the characteristics of low initial modulus, suitable elongation at break, good elasticity, wear resistance and high enthalpy, good energy absorption and impact resistance, excellent heat resistance, good folding performance. Nylon 46 and nylon 6 can also be used to make airbag fabrics. Akzo Nobel has developed an uncoated nylon 46 filament for airbags with a melting point of 285 ° C, which has similar properties to nylon 66 but costs more. The melting point and enthalpy of nylon 6 filament are lower than those of NYLON 66, but it can be made into better airbag after special treatment. The airbag fabric made of Saty Gard nylon 6 filament produced by Allied Signal showed better tear resistance, foldability and strength retention than the airbag fabric made of nylon 66, and also performed well in impact, aging and combustion tests.

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In addition, polyester filament can also be used as raw materials for air bags. Polyester has the advantages of low cost, no obvious influence of humidity change, high strength, good chemical resistance, good shape retention and easy recycling. The production cost of air bag fabric can be reduced by about 40% instead of nylon. The high temperature resistance and impact resistance of polyester fabric are not as good as those of nylon fabric, but with the development of fiber modification technology and air bag fabric finishing technology, its properties still have a great space for improvement. German PHP FIBERS developed an additive modified polyester to produce airbag fabrics with properties comparable to polyamide 66 and improved heat resistance. Hoechst, a German company, has developed a high toughness polyester filament, and the airbag fabric made from it has shown good performance in environmental simulation and car crash tests. Because of the low moisture regain, polyester is not easy to recover to the yarn state before calendering after moisture absorption, and can keep low air permeability during the service life of the air bag. Therefore, polyester has become the focus of increasing attention of developers, and the proportion of airbag fabric woven with polyester silk is gradually increasing. Currently, polyester is used in nearly 30 percent of airbags.

Airbag fabric selection

Coated fabrics have the advantages of high thermal conductivity, precision control of air permeability, easy cutting and sewing, and non-fraying edges, but they do not fold easily and degrade rapidly over time, thus potentially leading to catastrophic failures. In addition, the sewing type air bag has high requirements on sewing thread and sewing process. Therefore, lighter, softer, smaller, more environmentally friendly and recyclable, uncoated, fully formed airbag fabric has become the direction of technological development. Uncoated fabrics need to be extremely dense and of very high quality, but still require some air permeability, which is difficult to process, but predictable and more stable. Uncoated airbags release air primarily through fabric pores, which can be deployed at relatively low pressure and release air at a lower temperature, thus minimizing the probability of face and neck burns or injuries when the airbag deploys. At present, uncoated airbags are mainly used in the market, and more and more foreign high-end cars are using fully formed airbags.

The high strength and low permeability of air bag are the key to meet the requirements of use. Therefore, in the weaving process, the organization is closely woven with plain weave structure, plain weave structure float length, stable structure, small air permeability, fabric strength is also high. For the airbag fabric with high comprehensive performance requirements, composite fiber, profiled fiber, or the use of multi-component raw materials to mix or interweave method for weaving, in order to improve the folding, flexibility, and adhesion with the coating, etc. Nonwovens are also beginning to be used in airbags. In addition to improving material performance and reducing cost, the main research direction of airbag fabric also includes the improvement of intelligence and safety. In terms of safety, sodium azide is widely used in the production of automobile airbag generator, which is highly toxic. After activation, solid sodium will be generated. If solid sodium is in contact with water, it will burn directly, causing secondary damage. Therefore, as one of the future development directions, the automobile airbag will gradually replace sodium azide with other gases, such as the mixture of hydrogen and air or the mixture of helium.

For more information, please check out the article "Application and Development of Textile Materials for Automobiles", Textile Herald, No. 8, 2021.We can provide dope dyed yarn nylon  、 dope dyed yarn polyester.

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